This programme examines the international legal frameworks that apply in the digital domain. Although States have accepted that international law – including the United Nations Charter and human rights law – does apply: reaching agreement as to the content of the rules and how they apply has been elusive. Understanding precisely how the law operates in cyberspace is critical to the maintenance of global peace and security and to the promotion of human rights. In this course we will focus primarily on the responsibility of States in this dynamic and ever-changing realm in both peace- and war-time. We will explore a host of questions. What is a cyber attack? What actions may states lawfully take against such attacks whether mounted by states or non-state actors: including terrorists? Is the nature of the target of the attack relevant and: if so: why? Is a cyber weapons treaty necessary? How does international law regulate cyber espionage? Does existing international human rights law adequately protect against rights violations: including: for example: digital surveillance or on-line criminal activities?